|Alimentatia corecta - partea a II-a
Consume as much as possible varied fresh natural good quality aliments and try to avoid too refined / modified ones or those which are impure, with many preservatives or other additives, toxic a.s.o. !
The proteins. Some are very good (with easy and efficient digestion and absorption and bringing all essential amino acids in adequate percents): those from eggs, milk and cheese, good quality meat. Other proteins have a low nutritive value: those from most fruits (excepting nuts, almonds...), from cereals and vegetables (excepting soybean, beans, garlic, pea...), those from tendons, fascias and joints... Almost half of the ingested proteins should be of animal origin!
The fats (lipids). They exist in every cell of the body and are very important. Most can be synthesized in our body (but not the "essential fat acids") but a daily ingestion is important. Some have a high nutritional value (nuts, vegetal oils from maize, sunflower, soy) or medium value (olive oil, pork grease, bird grease), other have very low value (butter, fat from sheep or cows). Fats also bring a lot of important vitamins! Fried or frozen fats have negative effects! Good fat sources are not only oil and grease, but also pork meat, nuts.... Cholesterol is important, only the excess is bad! Half of the ingested fats should be of animal origin!
The saccharides. They include:
1. monosaccharides - glucose, fructose...
2. oligosaccharides ex. disaccharides - sugar, galactose ...;
3. polysaccharides ex. glycosides:
3.1 for reserve (ex. amidin in plants, glycogen in animals), the most important glycosides for our alimentation
3.2 structural glycosides (ex. cellulose) - impossible to digest by humans....
Saccharides must form the majority of our diet, but the superior ones (cereals, potatoes...) maximal 10% inferior, "refined" saccharides like sugar, chocolate, sweets...! These are very easy absorbed and therefore good for physical effort but they are undervalued by our hunger sensation and overingestion happens often!
The correct balance is: 1g proteins; 1g fats; 4g saccharides. Physical effort requires increasing the percent of fats and saccharides!
Minerals. Beside C, H, O, N and S that form the proteins, fats and saccharides, we also need a quite important quantity of the "macroelements" like Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, and Mg. Also small but absolutely vital quantities of "micro / oligoelements" like Fe, CU, Co, J, F, Mo, Mn, Se, V, Cr, Zn..... Calcium, Phosphor and Iron are found in large quantities in vegetables but it can be well absorbed by the organism only out of aliments of animal origin! Na is usually in excess in our diet! Most metals and other oligoelements become toxic if in too large quantity!
Vitamins: They are essential for our surviving! Simplified, we can group them in two categories:
1. Liposolvable vitamins: A, D, E, K. They are almost not affected by high temperatures (when cooking aliments) and can be stocked by our organism (reserves).
2. Hydrosolvable vitamins: B1, B2, B6, PP, C, B12. They are destroyed by high temperatures (ex. when cooking the aliments); by oxidative agents and light (Therefore vegetables must be stocked in dark places!); They are washed-out (Do not held aliments in water / do not throw away the water in which they stood!).
Sources of vitamins: Vit. A is found mostly in lever, eggs, fat milk products, fish oil, some vegetables/fruits! Excess is toxic! Vit. D in liver, fish oil, fat milk products but to be active it requires exposing the skin to the sunrays! Vit. E in vegetal oils, integral bread, nuts, eggs...Vit. K in vegetables (K1) and from syntheses by bacteria in our intestine (K2) Vit. B1 in meat. Vit B2 in cheese, meat, eggs; Vit. PP in meat; Vit. C in vegetables (fresh or pickled); Vit. B12 in meat and does not exist in any vegetable!
For nutrition, aliments are classified in 7 groups:
I milk / cheese;
II meat and meat products;
IV green vegetables and fruits;
V cereals and dry vegetables;
Fibers are not absorbed but are important for regulating stool, eliminating toxic products a.s.o.
Water. In average, an adult needs in normal circumstances (without heat or significant physical effort!) around 2,5 liters water per day. Around 1,5 must be ingested as fluid (water, drinks, soup...), the rest is contained in the ingested aliments or is produced in the body while "burning" nutrients.